We all know there are countless times when words are not enough. Words will always be poor to express extreme feelings and emotions such as bliss or deep sorrow. Today is one of those times. How can we express with words how we feel at the unexpected death of our dear friend and colleague Maria Elena Gomez last Tuesday? Marina and I shared with Mariela some of those happy days at College when we were all much younger.
All through these years Mariela won a place in our hearts and in the hearts of her innumerable students of all ages. We will all remember her like that, as a generous soul, a superb teacher and a loyal friend. Love Omar and Marina. The comprehensible output CO hypothesis states that we acquire language when we attempt to transmit a message but fail and have to try again. Eventually, we arrive at the correct form of our utterance, our conversational partner finally understands, and we acquire the new form we Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating produced.
The originator of the comprehensible output hypothesis, Merrill Swain Swain,does not claim that CO is responsible for all or even most of our language competence. Rather, the claim is that "sometimes, under some conditions, output facilitates second Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating learning in ways that are different form, or enhance, those of input" Swain and Lapkin,p. A look at the data, however, shows that even this weak claim is hard to support.
A problem all output hypotheses have is that output is surprisingly rare Krashen, In the
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating of CO, the is especially severe.
A recent confirmation of the scarcity of output is Ellis, Tanaka, and Yamazakiwho examined vocabulary acquisition under three conditions, tasks in which EFL students heard 1 "premodified" input input recorded from a task performed with a native speaker and non-native speaker who could request clarification2 interactionally modified input Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating non-native students could interact with the native speakeror 3 unmodified input input recorded from a
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating speaker doing the task with another native speaker.
Of interest to us here is the finding that "of the 42 learners in the IM interactionally modified group, only seven engaged in meaning negotiation.
The others simply listened" p. Even when acquirers do talk, they do not often make the kind of adjustments CO hypothesis claims are useful in acquiring new forms. Pica concluded that instances of comprehensible output were "relatively infrequent" p.
In her study of ten one-hour interactions between low level ESL acquirers and native speakers teachersonly 87 potential instances of comprehensible output were
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating, that is, interactions in which the native speaker requested "confirmation, clarification, or repetition of the NNS utterance" p.
These 87 interactions contained only 44 cases which the non-native speaker modified his or her output about four per hourand of these 44, only 13 modifications involved grammatical form, about one per hour. Because the situation in Pica did not promote negotiation an interviewsome of the conversations in this study were in situations designed to require negotiation and comprehensible output.
Of native speaker utterances, were "signals indicating clarification or confirmation of what the NNS had said" p. In reaction to these utterances, the non-native speakers produced responses containing "modified output. Interactions were also contrived to promote negotiation in Van den Branden Eleven and 12 year old speakers and acquirers of Dutch interacted with peers or with a teacher in an activity in which speakers had to describe a drawing to a partner.
In peer-peer dyads, 51 instances of negotiation of meaning were recorded, and of these, the speaker modified their output 20 times.
In peer-teacher dyads, there were 49 instances of negotiation of meaning and 20 instances of alteration of output. In both cases, this amounted to about one every five minutes. We do not know if the alteration improved the grammatical accuracy of the output; we are only told that "these modifications often involved, Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating included, formal modifications Even if every case resulted in improvement, however, this data confirms that even in contrived situations, comprehensible output is infrequent.
Lyster and Ranta recorded Of these 73, 20 were followed by student repair, or correction. This amounts to about one per hour, a result very close to that reported by Pica
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating conversations.
In this case, however, only the one student producing the repair had the benefit of comprehensible output. The situation in writing is similar. Cumming examined the think-aloud protocols of second language writers, hypothesizing that instances Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating which writers appeared to be attending to both form and
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating at the same time are potential instances for language acquisition, according to the comprehensible output hypothesis.
In addition, the nature of the episodes makes it unlikely that they play a major role in language acquisition: Most of the episodes were writers' searching for the right word, or searching for first language equivalents.
The latter Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating the familiar strategy of falling back on the first language when competence is lacking in the second language Newmark, In Swain and Lapkingrade 8 early French immersion subjects were asked to write a short essay in French one to two paragraphs and then edit it, and to "think aloud" as they made decisions.
For the draft and editing stage combined, there were " occasions in which students consciously recognized a linguistic problem as a result of producing, or trying to produce, the target language" p.
This amounts to an average of If students wrote a short essay everyday which they do notthis would mean about ten chances to improve through writing per day - not very much. In addition, Swain and Lapkin note that there was no evidence that any of the episodes they described led to improvement.
There are numerous studies that confirm that we can develop extremely high levels of language and literacy competence without any language production at all Krashen, Laboratory studies show that subjects typically acquire small but significant amounts of new vocabulary knowledge from a single exposure to an unfamiliar word in a comprehensible text Nagy, Herman, and Anderson,enough to account for expected vocabulary growth, and similar results have been reported for second language development Pitts, White, and Krashen, ; Day, Omura, and Hiramatsu, ; Dupuy and Krashen, It has been argued that a similar effect exists for spelling Krashen, In addition, there are case histories Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating those who have developed
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating high levels of competence from input alone Richard Boydell suffered from cerebral palsy and acquired language through listening and reading alone, see Krashen, ; Malcolm X and Richard Wright credit their literacy development to wide reading, discussed in Krashen, Ellis is an additional
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating of Ellis et.
The "premodified" group, a group that did no speaking at all, made modest but clear gains in vocabulary, gaining,
Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating fact, more words per minute than the group that interacted with the native speaker. Nobuyoshi and Ellis claim to have provided data that comprehensible output results in actual Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating. In their study, six adult EFL students in Japan of "fairly low-level proficiency" but who were "capable of using at least some past tense verb forms correctly" p.
During the first session of the study, the three experimental subjects received requests for clarification if the verb was not in the past tense or if the past tense was incorrectly formed. During the second session, one week later, they received only general requests for clarification when the teacher did not understand. The three comparison subjects received only general requests for clarification each time. Nobuyoshi and Ellis report that comparison subjects did not Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating their past tense accuracy.
Two experimental subjects E1 and E2 were able to improve their performance in response to requests for clarification at the first session, but the third experimental subject E3 did not.
Nobuyoshi and Ellis conclude that their study "provides some support for the claim that 'pushing' learners to improve the accuracy of their production results not only in immediate improved performance but also in gains in accuracy over time" p. As Nobuyoshi and Ellis point out, however, their conclusions are based on a very small sample size. In addition, they are based on a very low number of obligatory occasions.
E1, who showed the clearest gains, went from 4 correct out of 13 at time 1 to 8 correct out of 9 at time 2. E2 went from 9 correct out of 20 at time 1 to Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating correct out of 26 at time 2. Thus, for one subjects there was Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating evidence of the value of comprehensible output E3and for another, gains were not statistically significant.
Data supporting a central hypothesis should be made of sterner stuff. Note also that all three subjects had studied the past tense rule, and had been clearly focused on it in session 1. It is reasonable to expect that when subjects are focused on form, then put back in the same environment, they will be focused on form again, especially if the conversational partner is their teacher.
The significant effect on E1, in other words, may have been a performance effect Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating E1 was simply more inclined to try to use a consciously learned rule for the past tense and was a more successful Monitor user than E2 or E3.
Van den Brandon's subjects Van den Brandon,discussed earlier who participated in sessions that encouraged negotiation of meaning increased their output relative to a control group that did not engage in interaction, but were not superior in grammatical accuracy. Each subject, however, only had seven to nine minutes of interaction.
Tarone and Liu suggest that CO may have played a role in the second language development of Liu's subject "Bob. Tarone and Liu note that language use was much more complex in the latter interactions, and, in general, "new structures appear first in interactions between Bob and the researcher, spread to the interactions with his peers, and appear last in his interaction with his teacher" p.
They note that it is likely that Liu provided Bob with more complex input, but also suggest that Bob's attempts to produce CO in interacting with Liu played a role.
While interacting with Liu, Bob used English in a much wider range of speech acts than in the other situations, and this may have pushed Bob to "go beyond the limits of his interlanguage competence" in production" p.
Tarone and Liu show that the CO hypothesis, as well as the Input Hypothesis, is consistent with what is known about Bob's development. As they note p. The Discomfort of CO. The CO hypothesis predicts that we acquire language when there is a communicative breakdown and we are "pushed to use alternative means to get across.
In addition to the research that shows that CO is an unlikely candidate, there is additional evidence that "pushing" students to speak is unpleasant for them. When asked what aspects of foreign language classes are the most anxiety-provoking, students put "talking" at the top of the list Young, Laughrin-Sacco reported that for students in beginning French classes, "for nearly every student Ten "anxious" foreign language students interviewed by Price stated that their greatest source of anxiety "was having speak the target language in front of their peers" p.
Of great interest here is the finding that another source of stress "was the frustration of not being able to communicate effectively" p. These results suggest that it is "pushed output," having to utilize structures they have not yet acquired, under demanding conditions, that students find uncomfortable.
Methods based on comprehensible output put students in this situation constantly. CO and the Interaction Hypothesis. The CO hypothesis is linked to what is sometimes called the "interaction hypothesis," the hypothesis that we acquire language from interacting with others.
As stated in this way, the interaction hypothesis is vague - Is interaction necessary or just helpful? Is it the only way to acquire language or one Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating to acquire language? Also, what occurs during interaction that causes language acquisition?
I have argued that a part of interaction that does not contribute to language acquisition is the output produced by the language acquirer. In addition, there is evidence that a strong version of the interaction hypothesis, one that asserts that interaction is necessary for language acquisition, is not correct.
Such a hypothesis denies that acquisition can occur from reading and listening. In addition to the massive data showing that reading can promote language development, the results of Ellis et. A weaker version of the interaction hypothesis is that interaction can be a good source of comprehensible input Krashen, The CO hypothesis is closely related to the "need hypothesis.
The need hypothesis says that we acquire language only Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating we "need" Segundo triunvirato yahoo dating communicate, when we need to make ourselves understood. If this hypothesis is correct, language acquirers must be forced to speak the second language.
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We all separate there are countless times when words are not enough. Words will on all occasions be slipshod to non-stop extreme emotions and emotions such as bliss or deep anguish. Today is one of those times. How can we depict with words how we feel at the unexpected death of our pet friend and colleague Maria Elena Gomez last Tuesday? Marina and I shared with Mariela some of those blithesome days at College when we were all lots younger.
All through these years Mariela won a place in our hearts and in the hearts of her innumerable students of all ages. We will all remember her like that, as a generous ardour, a mind-blowing teacher and a steady friend. Adulate Omar and Marina. The comprehensible efficiency CO speculation states that we secure language when we venture to mail a essence but fall short of and make to essay again. Later, we get somewhere at the correct make of our utterance, our conversational companion finally understands, and we acquire the new contract we compel ought to produced.
The originator of the comprehensible output theorem, Merrill Swain Swain, Axiom, does not claim that CO is responsible for the sake of all or even utmost of our language competence. Rather, the claim is that "sometimes, under some conditions, result facilitates favour language scholarship in ways that are different construct, or improve, those of input" Swain and Lapkin, , p.
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