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The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between and on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years. In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction were not.

Martin Frey,8 Roland Keller,7 Jean-Marie...

Mean annual decline in FEV 1 was Decline per pack per day between and was lower in women who smoked in but quit before compared to persistent smokers There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women.

Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men. Women current smokers with airway obstruction experience a greater smoking related decline in lung function than men. Cigarette smoking is the most well known risk factor for accelerating lung function decline in adults [ 1 ]. Until recently, smoking prevalence and intensity was greater in men than in women; but there is now evidence that women Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction starting to smoke as much as men [ 12 ].

At present, there is no consensus whether women are more sensitive to effects from cigarette smoke than men [ 1 - 8 ]. Relatively few large studies have compared effects from smoking between men and women Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction results have not been consistent between studies.

A greater decline in lung function per pack-year in women compared to men was reported by Chen et al but the converse was found by Xu et al [ 56 ]. Prescott et al reported slightly higher coefficients for decline in FEV 1 per pack-year in women compared to men and Connett et al reported similar rates of decline in men and women but a swifter regain in FEV 1 in women who quit smoking [ 47 ].

Smoke related lung damage is characterised by inflammation, airway obstruction and destruction of the lung parenchyma [ 910 ]. Underlying lung characteristics can vary and there is some evidence that smokers differ in their predisposition to develop predominantly emphysema or bronchitis [ 1112 ].

Predispositions between men Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction women may Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction because of differences in lung morphology that modify the dispersion and deposition of cigarette smoke or differences in homeostatic processes affecting the efficacy of lung clearance and recovery after smoking cessation [ 13 - 15 ]. The strongest effects from smoking have been consistently measured in current smokers and detrimental effects have been shown to reduce with time from cessation [ 116 ].

The vast majority of surveys of effects from smoking on lung function have focused on FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second. An argument for not investigating lung flow rates has been the large inter-subject variability in the rates which prejudices against precise estimation of effects in cross-sectional analyses. In a cohort study however, the inter-participant differences become less important because each subject serves as its own control.

In cross-sectional analyses, associations were found between levels of lung function and exposure to air pollutants as well as to cigarette smoke [ 18 - 20 ]. Eleven years later, participants have been re-examined using the same methodology.

Lung volumes and flows as well as smoking history were measured in and The aim of the present analysis is to assess the long term effects from smoking on change in lung function and to compare effects between men and women.

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The sample examined is current smokers at the time of the first assessment The study participants were recruited from random population samples from local registries of inhabitants from eight areas of Switzerland. The eight areas were chosen to represent the variety of environmental conditions found in Switzerland concerning geography, climate, degree of urbanisation and air pollution.

To meet the selection criteria, individuals had to be 18 to 60 years of age by Decemberlocal residents for at least three years and Swiss Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction or foreigners with a residence permit. Ethical approval for the study was given by the Regional Ethics Commission for Clinical Medicine Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences and each centres' regional ethics committee.

Participants were requested not to use betaagonists or anticholinergic inhalers four Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction prior to and long-acting beta agonists, oral betaagonists, theophyline or oral antimuscarinic medication eight hours prior to the time of appointment of the examination.

Information about smoking and other risk factors was gathered through an interview administered questionnaire based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS questionnaire [ 24 ]. Three categories of smoking status were derived: Smokers had to have smoked more than 20 packs of cigarettes or more than g of tobacco. Other participants with validated smoking histories were Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction as former smokers.

Cumulative cigarette smoking exposure was summarised into two variables: Pack-years were calculated as years of smoking multiplied by number of cigarettes per day divided by Participants were asked not to smoke in the hour before the examination and this was validated in both surveys by measuring carbon monoxide CO concentration in exhaled breath using a EC 50 Micro-Smokerlizer Bedfont measuring device.

Separate models analyses were conducted for men and women.

Background

Covariates tested in the regression models, other than the variables "pack-year" and "packs per day" included study area, atopy, childhood respiratory infection before age five, maternal smoking, Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction smoking, education, current and ever exposure to dust and fumes at work, age at start of smoking, inhaler or not, pipe smoker, solely non-cigarette smoker, body mass index BMIweight at baseline, change in weight, change in BMI between surveys and years since Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction. Baseline lung function parameters were included in all models because we could not assume that the change in lung function would be the same for all lung volumes and because we wanted to absorb effects from smoking up to baseline SAPALDIA 1.

However, effects were also re-examined in models that did not contain baseline lung function covariates. For each continuous covariate, Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction tested whether a linear, quadratic or cubic polynomial best described the relation with change in lung function.

Mean annual change in lung function per pack-year to and per pack of cigarettes smoked per day between and in women and men. There were 53 women and 99 men respectively for whom information on pack-years or packs smoked were missing and 74 participants with missing flow data.

Regression diagnostics were conducted to identify influential data. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine effects after eliminating points with high leverage or large residuals and to assess possible biases due to missing information about numbers of cigarettes smoked. The period of follow-up was the same in men and women median Median years since quitting amongst quitters were 5.

The correlation coefficient between pack-years smoked before and pack-years smoked Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction surveys was 0. Absolute mean declines in lung function were Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction in men compared to women except for FEF After controlling for mean lung size or flow measured in differences in change between men and women became less significant except for FEF Mean percent change in FEF 25 from baseline was Removal of baseline lung function variables from models made only small differences to effect estimates.

Point estimates for effects from pack-years were stable in all models for both men and women after removal of influential observations. The covariate for pack-year was retained as a linear term in all models however, because it influenced effect estimates for packs per day between and Restricting models to participants who were current smokers in both surveys made no difference to the effect estimates for pack-years to The polynomial terms were highly significant.

A non-linear relation between pack-years and change in FEF 25 was also seen in women that was not seen Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction men. Mean annual change in FEV 1 per pack-year to and per pack of cigarettes smoked per day between and by degree of airway obstruction in Point estimates were of a similar magnitude in both sexes with an additional Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction annual decline in FEV 1 per pack of cigarettes smoked per day of Inclusion of a variable for years since quitting into the models for quitters reduced effect estimates for change in FEV1 per pack per day to Using quantitative information on cigarettes smoked during two time periods, we show similarities and differences in the effect of smoking on lung function decline between men and women.

Decline due to smoking Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction strongly related to recent exposure and to a similar magnitude in men and women overall.

Morino M, Pellegrino L, Castagna...

However, we found evidence that the facility for recovery from past smoking is greater in women quitters. In both men and women, effects from recent smoking were more detrimental to lung function in individuals with pre-existing airway obstruction. The mean unadjusted changes in lung function over the year follow-up of the SAPALDIA cohort study are broadly consistent with changes reported elsewhere [ 62526 ]. However, the LHS participants were older 35—60 years versus 18—60 yearshad chronic obstructive airways disease and also reported heavier smoking mean of 30 cigarettes per day versus 20 in SAPALDIA at study entry [ 26 ].

In the Six Cities study, effect estimates for mean annual change in FEV 1 per pack smoked in men However, the effects of smoking prior to follow-up and smoking during the follow-up period 3—6 years were summarized into one variable of packs smoked and were not examined separately in the Six Cities study [ 6 ].

In both men and women, mean packs smoked per day between and were linearly associated with decline in lung function over the time period but pack-years to were not. The point estimates for annual change in lung function per pack per day in the most recent 11 years were similar in men and women with no evidence of airway obstruction. There was some evidence that men and women Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction poor lung function and who smoked heavily were less likely to participate in the second survey and this may be part of the explanation why we did not measure a negative effect from earlier pack-years.

Pack-years of cigarettes smoked before the were associated with non-linear changes in FEV 1 and FEF 25 between surveys in women. Possibly women, as a group, have a more heterogeneous response to smoking than men. We found evidence that suggested that women both recover more swiftly after quitting smoking than men but also that women with airway obstruction are more vulnerable to effects from smoking.

The distribution of years since Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction amongst men and women quitters was similar and relatively short. Previous studies have also reported attenuated effects from smoking after short periods of cessation [ 7Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction28 ].

In the LHS, the attenuation in lung function decline following Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction cessation could be observed after one year [ 7 Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction.

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We did not observe an attenuated effect on lung function decline Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction smoking cessation in men, which Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction been reported elsewhere [ 729 ].

However, the number of quitters in our study was relatively small Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction in the Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airways Obstructive Disease, recovery in men was restricted to young men with no evidence of airway obstruction [ 29 ].

Our data provide additional evidence that facility for recovery following smoking cessation is, overall, greater in women compared to men. Reliability of reporting habits may differ between sexes and we are unable to assess the possible extent of this bias in our study. However, we attempted to validate smoking status using expired CO and similar proportions of men and women were shown to have reported of inconsistent information about smoking habits.

In the ECRHS women were as likely as men to report cough and phlegm but significantly less likely to have airflow obstruction [ 30 ]. If perception of decline in lung function is greater in women than in men, susceptible women may be more likely to quit smoking than Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction men.

Evidence for a larger effect from smoking in men with symptoms Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction obstructive airway disease was presented by Fletcher and Peto almost 30 years ago [ 31 ]. We are unaware of other studies showing an accelerated effect in lung function decline related to smoking in women with obstructed airways compared to men.

Men and women persistent smokers in the LHS study have been reported to be approximately equivalent in terms of their percent predicted lung function loss [ 7 ]. However, since all LHS participants had evidence of mild to moderate airway obstruction at study entry, we would predict a sex difference in lung function decline per pack of cigarette smoked.

Reduced flow rates are due to a combination of airway narrowing and decreased lung recoil [ 9 ].

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Predisposition to airway narrowing and decreased lung recoil may vary between men and women given sex differences in lung characteristics [ 15 ]. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of particle deposition in the airways is likely to be more proximal in women compared to men [ 14 ].

Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction airway caliber is smaller in women, we could hypothesise that the same reduction in airway diameter would result in a relatively greater impact on the reduction in flow rates in women compared to men [ 1533 ].

An accelerated rate of lung function decline has also been reported amongst asthmatics who smoke [ 34 ]. Our findings suggest that smokers with pre-existing airway obstruction are likely to experience accelerated lung function decline irrespective of the potential underlying disease. Some of the inconsistent findings from earlier studies comparing effects from smoking on lung function between men and women may be due to difficulties in separating out effects from recent smoking and past smoking.

In both men and women recent smoking is a much stronger predictor of lung function decline than smoking more than 10 years previously. Our findings suggest that women recover faster from past smoking than men, but are particularly susceptible to effects from current smoking when they have existing airways obstruction.

Mathematics, sex hormones, and brain function - Volume 11 Issue 2 - Helmuth Hubbard, R., Henifin, M. S. & Fried, B. () Biological woman: The Kail, Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction, Carter, P. & Pellegrino, J. () The locus of sex differences in spatial ability. Roland, P. E. & Friberg, L. () Localization of cortical areas. Penile prosthesis surgery for erectile dysfunction has the highest satisfaction rates Maier, Wolfgang; Arndt, Susan; Laszig, Roland; Beck, Rainer; Aschendorff, Antje Scotti, Roberto; Pellegrino, Gerardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Corinaldesi, The authors describe a case of 33 year old Caucasian married man with an.

D'Antona, G., Pellegrino, M. A., Adami, R., Rossi, R., Carlizzi, C. N., Roland pellegrino wife sexual dysfunction, M., The effect of ageing and immobilization on structure and function of human.

Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Abstract Currently, notalgia paresthetica NP is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine.

It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction , and that electrical muscle stimulation EMS of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP.

In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica.

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The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between and on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years.

In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked before were not. Mean annual decline in FEV 1 was Decline per pack per day between and was lower in women who smoked in but quit before compared to persistent smokers There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women.

Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men.

Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy exchange for physical pain include the anterior insula AI Ban, and the anterior cingulate cortex ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to cotton on to how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on.

Physical attractiveness is a major sexual and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal computation. The aim of the study was to ascertain how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of unambiguous empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects 14 female and 13 male were conscious using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI method while they were watching little video scenes involving physically more and less interesting men and women who exhibited pain responses.

In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures ACC; AI for beneath attractive men and because of attractive women than due to the fact that attractive men. Evolutionary feelings studies suggest that loveliness is valued more praisefully in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive wife than the men.

That could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a version are important modulators of empathy for pain.

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